In general, the names of historical or cultural periods are lowercased, except for proper nouns and adjectives, or to avoid ambiguity: baroque architecture, classical sculpture, colonial politics, romantic painting; but Hellenistic period, Victorian era, Bronze Age, Enlightenment, Middle Ages, Reformation, Renaissance.

Similarly, capitalize the names of cultural movements and styles if they are derived from proper nouns; otherwise lowercase them: Doric, Gothic, Neoplatonism, Pre-Raphaelite, Romanesque; but baroque, classical, cubism, dadaism, modernism, neoclassicism, postmodernism.

Capitalize political parties and their adherents but not their generic ideologies (unless derived from a proper noun): One can be a democrat without being a Democrat. Similarly: socialist/Socialist/socialism/Socialism, fascist/Fascist, communist/Communist, but always Marxist and capitalist.